A. Parts of Speech
- An adjective modifies - Noun.
- Piya has slept only three hours.
Here ‘only’ is an - Adverb.
- The correct derivative of ‘book’ is - Bookish.
- The jury found the prisoner guilty. Here ‘jury’ is a - Collective Noun.
- ‘I cut myself.’ Here ‘myself’ is a - Reflexive Pronoun.
B. Idioms & Phrases
Pass the buck - To pass the blame to someone else.
Down to earth - Realistic.
Achilles heel - A weak point.
Turned over a new leaf - Opened a new chapter.
Tall talk - Exaggeration.
C. Clauses (Underlined Words)
- I think that he is an honest man. - Noun clause.
- I made him what he wanted to be. - Noun clause.
- I know the man who helped him. - Adjective clause.
- I bought a pen which is red. - Adjective clause.
- He talks as if he were pundit. - Adverbial clause.
- Inc: He goes there last night.
Cor: He went there last night.
- Inc: Work hard lest you will fail.
Cor: Work hard lest you should fail.
- Inc: It is high time he go there.
Cor: It is high time he went there.
- Inc: He always tells the truth.
Cor: He always speaks the truth.
E. Transformation of Sentences
- Ass: I was sincere to may duties.
Int: Was I not sincere to my duties?
- Ass: It is a very beautiful garden.
Exc: What a beautiful garden it is!
- Simple: I saw a bird flying in the sky.
Complex: I saw a bird which was flying in the sky.
Compound: I saw a bird and it was flying in the sky.
- Active: Let him do the work.
Passive: Let the work be done by him.
(i) Meanings (One word Substitution)
- A place where money is coined - Mint.
- Animals sucking their mother breasts - Mammals.
- A place where aeroplanes are kept - Hangar.
- Study of influence of place and stars - Astrology.
Inception - Outset
Competent - Capable
Coherent - Consistent
Dwindle - Drop
Jovial - Gay
Speed money - Bribe
Genesis - Beginning
Handy - Useful
Occupy - Grab
Scream - Yell.
Deleterious - Harmless
Cynical - Gullible
Sluggish - Animated
Famous - Obscure
Liberty - Bondage
Belittle - Glorify
Bustle - Calm
Abandon - Retain
Awesome - Disgusting.
(v) Usage of words as various Parts of speech
- The noun form of the word ‘Prosper’ is - Prosperity.
- The adjective form of the word ‘Sympathy’ is - Sympathetic.
- The adjective form of the word ‘Hope’ is - Hopeful.
- The verb form of the word ‘Survival’ is - Survive.
(vi) Formation of new words by adding Prefixes and Suffixes:
- Dis: Disgraceful, Disqualified, Disloyal, Discomfort, Discharge, Disconnect.
- Be: Become, Behold, Beset, Besiege, Behead, Bemuse, Beside.
- Sion: Invasion, Submission, Conversion, Inversion, Omission, Admission, Permission.
- Ment: Enlightenment, Assessment, Concealment, Embankment, Agreement, Statement.
- A paragraph has - parts. - three
- Cohesion and coherence is essential in - Paragraph.
- The main part of a letter is-Subject.
- In report writing it is needed to mention - Date and place.