A. Parts of Speech
- Noun of the word ‘Laugh’ is – Laughter.
- The adjective of the word ‘Beauty’ is – Beautiful.
- He works hard that he may succeed. Here that is a – Conjunction.
- He worked instead of – Playing.
- The essential part of sentence is – Verb.
B. Idioms & Phrases
- Once in a blue moon – very rarely.
- Dilly dally – waste time.
- To carry coal to - Newcastle.
- Dog days – Hot weather.
- At a loss – puzzled.
- In no time – soon.
- To do away with – to get rid of.
- Tooth and nail – tried hard.
- Bad blood – enmity.
- By fits and starts – irregularly.
- This is the man who called you yesterday – Adjective clause.
- He asked me why I was late – Noun clause.
- Behave as a gentleman behaves. – Adverb clause.
- Look before you loap Hero ‘look’ is – Principal clause.
- I don’t like the people who are unity. – Relative clause.
- How the man died is a mystery. – Noun clause.
- Inc: He is working for live hours.
Cor: He has been working for five hours.
- Inc: No friend and no relative care for me.
Cor: No friend and no relative cares for me.
- Inc : I defer you on this point.
Cor: I defer to you on this point.
- Inc: He arrived the station.
Cor: He arrived at the station.
- Inc: He is one-eyed man.
Cor: He is a one-eyed man.
E. Transformation of Sentences
- Simple: By earning money, we live better.
Compound: We earn money and live better.
- Complex: We eat so that we many live.
Compound: We eat and live.
- Affirmative: My friend sometimes visits me.
Negative: My Friend does not always visit me.
- Assertive : They did not play football yesterday.
Interrogative: Did they play football yesterday.
- Simple: I am sure of his succeed.
F. (i) Meanings (one word substitutions)
- Practicing two marriages – Bigamy.
- An expert in writing by hand – Chirographer.
- One who is present all over – Omnipresent.
- A person who knows many languages – Linguist.
- A person who studies heavenly bodies – Astrologer.
• Solitary – Lonely
• Monopoly – Exclusiveness
• Morose – Depressed
• Velocity – Speed
• Obese – Very fat
• Formidable – Dangerous
• Genesis – Beginning
• Tum up – Arrive.
• Peripheral – Central
• Minimize – Expand
• Queer – Orderly
• Fertile – Barren
• Hamper – Facilitate
• Recollect – Forget.
(v) Usage of words as various Parts of Speech
- The adjective form of the word ‘Home’ – Homely.
- The noun form of ‘Lawful’ – Lawfulness.
- The adverb form of ‘Humorous’ – Humorously.
- The verb form of ‘Horror” – Horrify.
- The noun form of ‘Enjoy’ – Enjoyment.
- The verb form of ‘knowledge’ – Know.
(vi) Formation of new words by adding Prefixes and Suffixes:
- Mis – Mistake, Misfire, Misdeed, Misinterpret.
- Poly – Polytheist, Polygamy, Polygon, Polyglot.
- Be – Behind, Bedew, Befool, Betake.
- Hyper – Hyperbole, Hypercritical, Hypertension, Hypersensitive.
- Fy – Clarify, Beautify, Magnify, Purify.
- En – Wooden, Woolen, Earthen, Golden.
- Able – Eatable, Respectable.
- An extra message added to the end of a letter after it is signed is called – Postscript.
- Linkers are used in – Paragraph.
- A topic sentence can be put in the paragraph – At the beginning.
- The last sentence of a paragraph is called a – Terminator.