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বিষয় ভিত্তিক প্রস্তুতি : ইংরেজী ভাষা ও সাহিত্য
By shanta
#745
পরীক্ষায় ২-১টা voice আসে তাই একটু মন দি‌য়ে প‌ড়েন আপ‌নিও পার‌বেন।
এসো Voice change (A-Z) শিখি
---------------------------------------------
Voice এর সংজ্ঞা : Voice অর্থ বাচ্য , ক্রিয়া প্রকাশের ভঙ্গিমাকেই Voice বা বাচ্য বলে ।
Voice এর প্রকারভেদ: Voice দুই প্রকার । যথা 1. Active Voice (কর্তৃবাচ্য) 2. Passive Voice (কর্মবাচ্য)।
**1. Active Voice ( কর্তৃবাচ্য ) : কোন Sentence এ যদি Subject সক্রিয় হয়ে কোন কাজ সম্পাদন করে তখন তাকে Active Voice বলে ।
যেমন :
I eat rice.
He writes a letter.
**2. Passive Voice ( কর্মবাচ্য ) : কোন Sentence এ যদি Subject কে দিয়ে কোন কাজ করানো হয় বুঝায় তখন তাকে Passive Voice বলে ।
যেমন :
Rice Is eaten by me.
A letter is written by him.
☝Rules of changing voice :প্রথমে Tense এর voice change কারণ tense ছাড়া Grammar অচল

💊Rule 1:
a) Present indefinite tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + am/is/are + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active – I play football.
Passive- Football is played by me.
Active- They eat rice.
Passive- Rice is eaten by them.
b) Present continuous tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + am being/is being/are being + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I am playing football.
Passive: football is being played by me.
Active: He is eating rice.
Passive: Rice is being eaten by him.
c) Present perfect tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + have been/ has been + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: He has eaten rice.
Passive: Rice has been eaten by him.
Active: I have played football.
Passive: Football has been played by me.
Present perfect continious tense এরpassive হয়না
d) Past indefinite tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + was/were + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object
Active: I ate rice.
Passive: Rice was eaten by me.
Active: They played football.
Passive: Football were played by them.
e) Past continuous tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + was being/were being + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I was eating rice.
Passive: Rice was being eaten by me.
Active: They were catching fishes.
Passive: Fishes were being caught by them.
f) Past perfect tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + had been + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I had eaten rice.
Passive: Rice had been eaten by me.
Active: We had dug the cannel.
Passive: The cannel had been dug by us.
Past perfect continuous tense এর passiveহয়না
g) Future indefinite tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure: Object এর subject + shall be/will be + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I will eat rice.
Passive: Rice will be eaten by me.
Active: They will play football.
Passive: Football will be played by them.
h) Future continuous tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + shall be being/will be being + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I will be eating rice.
Passive: Rice will be being eaten by me.
Active: They will be playing football.
Passive: Football will be being played by them
i) Future perfect tense যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + shall have been /will have been + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I will have eaten rice.
Passive: Rice will have been eaten by me.
Active: They will have caught the fish.
Passive: The fish will have been caught by them.
Rules of changing voice:

💊Rule 2:
May, might, can, could, must, ought to, going to active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + may, might, can, could, must, ought to, going to এর পরে be + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object.
Active: I may help you.
Passive: You may be helped by me.
Active: You must do the work.
Passive: The work must be done by you.
Active: We ought to obey our teachers.
Passive: Our teachers ought to be obeyed by us.
Active: We are going to open a shop.
Passive: A shop is going to be opened by us.
#Imperative_sentence

💊Rule 3:
Imperative sentence এর active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করতে গেলে সর্বদা Let আসবে নিয়ম-
A) শুধু মাত্র মূল verb দিয়ে শুরু যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let + object এর subject + be + verb এর past participle form
Active: Close the door.
Passive: Let the door be closed.
Active: Shut the window.
Passive: Let the window be shut.
glasses emoticon Do not দিয়ে শুরু যুক্ত যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let not + object এর subject + be + verb এর past participle form
Active: Do not close the door.
Passive: Let not the door be closed.
Active: Do not shut the window.
Passive: Let not the window be shut.
C) Let এর পর যদি কোন ব্যক্তিবাচক object (me, us, you, them, him, her)থাকে এবং তা যদি Imperative sentence হয়, তাহলে active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let + object এর subject + be + verb এর past participle form + by + ব্যক্তিবাচক object.
Active: Let me play football.
Passive: Let the football be played by me.
Active: Let us sing a song.
Passive: let a song be sung by us.
Active: let him give the chance.
Passive: let the chance be given by him.
D) Never যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Let not + object এর subject + ever be + verb এর past participle form
Active: Never tell a lie.
Passive: Let not a lie ever be told.
Active: Never do this.
Passive: Let not this ever be done.
E) মূল verb এর পর যদি কোন ব্যক্তিবাচক object (me, us, you, them, him, her) থাকে এবং তা যদি Imperative sentence হয়, তাহলে active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure: Let + direct object টি বসবে (মূল verb এর পর যে object টি থাকে + be + verb এর past participle form + for + ব্যক্তিবাচক object
Active: Buy me a shirt.
Passive: Let a shirt be bought for me.
Active: Give me a glass of water.
Passive: Let a glass of water be given for me.
#INTERROGATIVE_SENTENCE

💊Rule 4:
Interrogative sentence যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
A) Structure:
Interrogative sentence কে Assertive sentence এ রুপান্তর করে নিতে হবে + রুপান্তরিত Assertive sentence এর active voice থেকে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করতে হবে + এবার রুপান্তরিত passive voice এর auxiliary verb টিকে প্রথমে বসাতে হবে + শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে। **** Tense অনুসারে করতে হবে।
Example 1:
Active: Have you eaten rice?
Assertive: You have eaten rice.
Assertive এর passive: Rice has been eaten by you.
Passive এ রুপান্তর: Has rice been eaten by you?
Example 2:
Active: Is he reading a book?
Assertive: He is reading a book.
Assertive এর passive: A book is being read by him.
Passive এ রুপান্তর: Is a book being read by him?
Example 3:
Active: Did you play football?
Assertive: You played football.
Assertive এর passive: Football was played by you.
Passive এ রুপান্তর: Was football played by you?
glasses emoticon Who যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Who এর পরিবর্তে By whom + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + object এর subject + অনেক সময় tense অনুযায়ী কর্তার পরে be/ being/ been বসাতে হয় + verb এর past participle form + ?.
Active: Who is playing football?
Passive: BY whom is football being played?
Active: Who will help me?
Passive: By whom will I be helped?
C) Whom যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Whom এর পরিবর্তে who + tense ও person অনুযায়ী
Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object +?
Active: Whom did you see on the road?
Passive: Who was seen by you on the road?
Active: Whom has he murdered in this home?
Passive: Who is murdered by him in this home?
D) What যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
What + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object +?
Active: What do you want?
Passive: What is wanted by you?
অন্যান্য রুলসসমুহ

💊Rule 5:
Subject + verb + object + present participle যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Object এর subject + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + present participle যুক্ত অংশটি + by + subject এর object.
Active: I saw him playing cricket.
Passive: He was seen playing cricket by me.
Active: I took him for a friend.
Passive: He was taken for a friend by me.

💊Rule 6:
Double object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
দুইটা object এর যে কোন একটি subject করতে হয় (personal object কে subject এ রুপান্তর করলে ভাল) + verb এর past participle form + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + প্রদত্ত বাকি object টি বসে + by + active voice এর subject টি object রুপে হয়।
Active: I gave him a flower. Passive: He was given a flower by me. Active: He teaches us math. Passive: we are taught English by him.

💊Rule 7:
Complex and compound sentence যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Complex and compound sentence যুক্ত active voice এ রূপান্তরের সময় উভয় clause এর voice পরিবর্তন হয়।
Active: I know that he did the work.
Passive: It is known to me that the work was done by him.
Active: He told me that he had done the work.
Passive: I was told that the work had been done by him.
Note: Active voice “people say” দিয়ে শুরু হলে It is said দিয়ে passive voice করাই ভাল।
Active: People say that the lion is the king of forest.
Passive: It is said that the lion is the king of forest.

💊Rule 9:
Intransitive verb যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
সাধারনত Intransitive verb এর passive voice হয় না। তবে Intransitive verb এর পরে preposition যুক্ত হয়ে যদি group verb গঠন করে এবং তা Intransitive verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাহলে –
Structure: Object টি subject + tense অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + প্রদত্ত preposition + by + subject টির object।
Active: The truck run over the boy.
Passive: The boy was run over by the truck.
Active: They looked at the poor man.
Passive: The poor man was looked at by them.

💊Rule 10:
Reflexive object (myself, ourselves, yourselves, yourself, themselves, himself, herself) যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Active voice subject টি অপরিবর্তিত অবস্থায় passive voice এর subject হিসেবে হবে + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + by + Reflexive object বসবে।
Active: He hanged himself.
Passive: He was hanged by himself.
Active: You killed yourself.
Passive: You were killed by yourself.

💊Rule 11:
Factitive object/­Complementary object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Factitive object/­Complementary object( select, elect, nominate, make, call, name ইত্যাদি transitive verb থাকা সত্ত্বেও সম্পূর্ণ রুপে অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে পারে না। পরিপূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করার জন্য অতিরিক্ত object আনতে হয়। এইরুপ অতিরিক্ত object কে Factitive object/­Complementary object বলে।
Structure:
নামবাচক object টির (me, us, you, them, him, her) object টি subject হয়। + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + Factitive object + by + subject এর object।
Active: They made me captain.
Passive: I was made captain by them.
Active: We call him liar.
Passive: He is called liar by us

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